Affordable Cosmetic Dentistry

Affordable Cosmetic Dentistry

We all want a dazzling and perfect smile. The standard set by Hollywood is perfectly straight, white teeth.
The quest for a movie star smile can seem daunting. The impression of cosmetic dentistry is that it’s expensive and reserved for people with a lot of discretionary income. However, the truth is that cosmetic dentistry is affordable, if you choose your procedures wisely. Some options are more expensive than others. The key is to work with your dentist, make her aware of your budget, and spend your budget wisely.

The most expensive cosmetic dentistry procedure is generally veneers. They may be done on just one or two teeth, but to really improve your smile, often they are put on five to eight teeth. The price tag for this procedure can cost thousands of dollars. Thus, if possible, avoid this option if at all possible.

Some less expensive options for cosmetic dentistry include whitening your teeth, replacing old fillings and re-shaping your teeth. Silver fillings can look unattractive and make you look older. To make the most of your money, begin with having your dentist file down and re-shape your teeth, particularly if you have teeth that are misshapen.

After your teeth have been refined, have your dentist whiten your teeth. The least expensive option is to have trays made from a mold of your teeth. Use bleach given to you by your dentist to use with the trays each night. This option may take up to two weeks. A faster, more effective, and more expensive option is to have laser whitening done at the dentist’s office. This procedure is done in the office in only one visit. The results are often incredible. It can result in your teeth becoming several shades lighter.

The next step is to have all of your fillings replaced. This includes metal fillings and older white fillings. The reason that this should be done after whitening is because fillings cannot be whitened and if the white fillings are done to teeth before you whiten, they will be darker than your teeth after they have been whitened.

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Teeth Bleaching

The efficacy of tooth bleaching.
Burrows S.

Current tooth lightening systems use hydrogen peroxide or carbamide peroxide which releases

hydrogen peroxide as the bleaching agent. In vitro and in vivo studies, mostly comparing

different bleaching systems, have demonstrated the efficacy of vital and non-vital tooth

bleaching. Bleaching treatments are affected by a number of factors including the actual

cause of tooth discoloration. All in-surgery bleaching agents are chemically activated and,

whilst better results are possible with lights, these are not essential. Shade change can be

evaluated subjectively and may be observed after only a few nights with Night Guard Vital

Bleaching (NGVB). Objective methods of shade evaluation are used in most randomized

controlled trials. There are a number of methods used to bleach teeth but NGVB using 10%

carbamide peroxide in trays produces the optimal result with the least side-effects.

The’inside/outside’ bleaching technique using 10% carbamide peroxide is the most effective

and safest method of bleaching non-vital teeth. Although more than 90% success has been

reported, regression of the colour change is a common problem in vital and non-vital tooth

bleaching and retreatment is necessary in many cases, usually after 1-3 years. The

overwhelming evidence indicates that tooth bleaching is effective if supervised by a dentist.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The clinician should be able to inform patients that both vital and

non-vital tray bleaching using 10% carbamide peroxide can produce excellent results when

supervised. However, shade regression is likely in 1-3 years.

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Dental Cavity Detection

Dental caries is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases of humans worldwide. When

different stages of the disease are taken into account, from the initial to the clinically

manifest lesion, very few individuals are truly unaffected. In most industrialized countries

60%–90% of school-aged children are affected. The prevalence among adults is even higher and

in most countries the disease affects nearly 100% of the population [1].

During the last thirty years, however, major changes have occurred in the pattern of the

disease. Progression of enamel caries is now slower [2], allowing time for preventive

intervention before irreversible destruction of tooth substance occurs. During the early

stages of the disease the process is reversible and can be arrested: noninvasive intervention

can convert a lesion from an active to an inactive state [3, 4]. Appropriate diagnostic

techniques are necessary to support such decisions about management of the individual lesion.

The clinician needs to be able to monitor the outcome of noninvasive measures and in cases

where there is evidence of lesion progression, make a timely decision to intervene, using

minimally invasive techniques and restoring damaged tooth structure without weakening the

tooth. Applying strategies to control, arrest, or reverse the disease process can reduce the

economic burden, pain, and suffering of placing and replacing restorations [5].

This modern, conservative approach to clinical management of dental caries, which has been

evolving during the past twenty years, has necessitated a critical appraisal of methods used

today for clinical detection of carious lesions.

Complementing traditional diagnostic methods with advanced, more sensitive methods will

improve caries diagnostic routines and hence the dental care and treatment of patients. The

application of such complementary methods should offer objective information about the

presence and severity of a lesion, to complement the clinician’s subjective interpretation,

providing evidence-based clinical caries diagnosis. In this context, there is also a place

for more sensitive caries detection methods in clinical caries research. Clinical trials in

which lesions are monitored in thousands of subjects over several years are no longer

commercially viable. A quantitative method capable of measuring small changes would allow

trials of much shorter duration and fewer subjects [6, 7].

Conventional examination for caries detection is based primarily on subjective interpretation

of visual examination and tactile sensation, aided by radiographs. The clinician makes a

dichotomous decision (absence or presence of a lesion) based on subjective interpretation of

color, surface texture, and location, using rather crude instruments such as a dental

explorer and bitewing radiographs [8]. Studies based on these methods often show low

sensitivity and high specificity, that is, a large number of lesions may be missed [9–13].

Sensitivity and specificity are widely used measures to describe and quantify the diagnostic

ability of a test [14]. In the context of caries research, sensitivity is a measure of the

method’s ability to correctly identify all surfaces damaged by caries, and specificity the

measure of correctly identified all sound surfaces. Sensitivity and specificity are expressed

as values between 0 and 1 (100%), values closer to 1 indicating a high quality result. For

caries diagnostic methods, values should be at least 0.75 for sensitivity and over 0.85 for

specificity [15].

Diagnostic techniques are also evaluated in terms of validity and reliability. To determine

validity, the outcome as measured by the method is compared with a reference standard, a

‘‘true’’ situation. Reliability expresses the consistency of a set of measurements performed

with the method. High validity is considered to confirm the absence of systematic errors and

high reliability the absence of random errors of the method. The generalisability of a

diagnostic technique is also described in terms of external and internal validity. The

external validity reflects the extent to which the results of a study can be extrapolated to

other subjects or settings, whereas internal validity reflects the degree to which

conclusions about causes or relationships are likely to be true, in view of the measures

used, the research setting, and the overall study design. Good experimental design will

filter out the most confounding variables, which could compromise the internal validity of an


A wide variation in terms of sensitivity and specificity for conventional caries detection

methods are found in the literature [9, 16, 17]. An overall low sensitivity of less than 0.50

is reported, which means that a guess would provide the same result when we correctly want to

identify a caries lesion. A recently published comprehensive review [15] stated that the

evaluations of diagnostic performance are based on limited numbers of studies of questionable

internal and external validity attributable to incomplete descriptions of selection and

diagnostic criteria and observer reliability. The quality of published studies is further

compromised by the use of small numbers of observers, nonrepresentative teeth, samples with

high lesion prevalence, a variety of reference standards of unknown reliability, and

variations in statistical analysis of the reported results.

It is apparent that conventional methods for the detection of dental caries do not fulfill

the criteria for an ideal caries detection method. These methods rely on subjective

interpretation and are insensitive to early caries detection. It is widely recognised that

the current methods cannot detect caries lesions until a relatively advanced stage, involving

as much as one-third or more of the thickness of enamel [18].

The shortcomings of conventional caries detection methods and the need for supplementary

methods have long been acknowledged. The series of published proceedings from the three

“Indiana Conferences on Early Detection of Dental Caries” contains a wealth of detail of work

in this area [19–21]. Over the past twenty years there has been intensive research into more

sophisticated methods for early detection of dental caries [5, 7–9, 16, 17, 22–34]. There are

a number of optical caries detection methods and some are summarized in Table 1. Several are

in their infancy and there is significant work involved in developing these techniques.

Therefore, validation studies are essential to determine their clinical utility before

implementation in clinical practice.

Table 1: Summary of optical caries detection methods.
An initial effect of the caries disease process, increased porosity, results in a distinct

change in the optical properties of the affected dental tissue, providing objective evidence

of a caries-induced change. Caries detection methods based on changes in a specific optical

property are referred to in the literature as optically based methods, optical methods, or

dental tissue optics. The methods are based on the measurement of a physical signal, derived

from the interaction of light with dental hard tissue. The following section presents a brief

description of the principles underlying these methods.

Copyright © 2010 Lena Karlsson. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative

Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction

in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Teeth Whitening Options

Teeth Whitening

How to Know Which Teeth Whitening Procedure Works Best for You

One of the first things people notice about us is our smile. Because of this fact, many individuals are looking for the most effective way to get their teeth as white as possible. There are more alternatives to choose from in today’s market than there were in the past. Consumers can choose from a wide array of over the counter products or go to their dentist for specialized teeth whitening treatment. Before you make a choice, you want to make sure you are properly informed about the various alternatives available, and what would work best for you.

If your teeth are in generally good condition, and do not need intense whitening, you may want to try an over the counter product. One of the easiest to use, and most cost effective methods is a whitening toothpaste. This product is found in the dental care aisle of any grocery store or discount store. Prices can range from $3.00 to $10.00. The way this product works is through the use of hydrogen peroxide which lightens the outer layer of the tooth.

Additional over the counter methods are whitening strips and whitening trays. Strips containing hydrogen peroxide gel are applied directly to the teeth, and kept in place two times a day for around two weeks. Trays also use a hydrogen peroxide gel which is placed inside it. The tray is typically worn around two hours each day for a month. The cost of these products ranges from around $10.00 to $40.00. These products can also be found in the dental care aisles of most grocery stores and other discount retailers.

For those individuals who have more severely stained teeth, there is the option of having your teeth whitened professionally. For people who choose this method, they will see the quickest results as the effectiveness of the whitening agent is increased through the use of a laser, a light, or a heat source. This is also the most expensive of all the options. A person choosing to go this route can expect to pay around $600 depending on the region of the country where the person lives. An important point to take into consideration about teeth whitening procedures such as these is that most dental insurance will not cover it.

As with any type of medical procedure, there are always side effects to take into consideration. With teeth whitening procedures, individuals run the risk of tooth and gum sensitivity. If you notice any of these symptoms, try reducing the amount of time the product stays on your teeth. Also, people who are allergic to hydrogen peroxide, the active ingredient in most of these products, should not use them. People who have had enamel colored fillings or crowns also should not use these products as the whitening will not be even over the entire tooth.

If you are wanting to improve your smile, and make a better first impression, you should have no trouble finding teeth whitening procedures suitable for your particular budget and situation. Before making a decision, you may even want to talk to your dentist, and make sure you pick the procedure that is best for you, and gives you a smile you’re not ashamed to show.

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Phoenix Dentists – You Can’t Do Without Them

Phoenix Dentists

Dentists, you just can’t do without them!

No matter how much you may want to, you just cannot neglect going to your Phoenix dentist as you just have to take care of your dental and oral health.

Neglected by many

Sadly, even though dental health and oral hygiene is very important, most people tend to just neglect it as they feel that it is not all that significant. But, this is totally wrong and it is very important to have teeth and gums that are healthy. This is because when they are healthy, you can thus avoid or reduce infections from taking place, in the future.
And of course, if you do not have any infection in your mouth, you are definitely reducing your chances of having to go in for surgery, for some kind of issue with your teeth, gums or any other part of your mouth, as a result of you not taking proper care of them.
The result of not going to dentists?
Not paying a visit to a dentist can result in you having all kinds of oral issues such as: bad breath, stained teeth, chipped or broken teeth, teeth that are discolored and so many other kinds of problems. As a result of these issues, the worst part is that you also become all the more susceptible to other kinds of oral problems such as all kinds of diseases of your gums, teeth and mouth.
And as a result of all these diseases, your jawbone could be severely affected. Thus, in order for you to ensure that such a thing does not take place, there are many kinds of dental treatments that are available today and these include: routine cleansing of the teeth, deep cleaning and treatment of the gums, cavity filling and most important of all – preventive care.
Cosmetic dentistry too
Today, going to the dentist is no longer just about having bleeding gums or teeth pain. There are so many other things that are involved such as teeth whitening and having a great looking smile, just to name a couple of things.
And this is why today, there are so many different kinds of treatments that are available in the field of dentistry. Today, people visit a dentist as they want to have great smiles, they want their teeth bleached and made whiter and so many other reasons.
And the best news is…
There are so many beneficial things that can be done today by dentists, as a result of all the changes and advances that have been brought about as a result of modern day technology.

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Phoenix Dentists

Phoenix Dentists

Find the perfect Phoenix dentists for you and your family.

You may see your dentist more during your life than your doctor. Get referrals from friends and interview the prospective dentist. The Phoenix area is home to a dental school; therefore, you will have a great list of dentists from which to choose the perfect one for you and your family.

Oral Health Problems Are Common and Painful

Let Your Phoenix Dentist Help!

  • Tooth decay affects more than one-fourth of U.S. children aged 2–5 and half of those aged 12–15. About half of all children and two-thirds of children aged 12–19 from low-income families have had decay.
  • Children and adolescents of some racial and ethnic groups and those from lower-income families have more untreated decay. For example, 40% of Mexican American children aged 6–8 have untreated decay, compared with 25% of non-Hispanic whites. Twenty percent of all adolescents aged 12–19 years currently have untreated tooth decay.
  • Advanced gum disease affects 4%–12% of adults. Half of the cases of severe gum disease in the United States are the result of cigarette smoking. Three times as many smokers have gum disease as people who have never smoked.
  • One-fourth of U.S. adults aged 65 and older have lost all of their teeth.
  • More than 7,600 people, mostly older Americans, die from oral and pharyngeal cancers each year. This year, about 35,000 new cases of oral cancer will be diagnosed.
  • Find a Phoenix dentist for your family.
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Comparison of shear bond strengths of ceramic brackets after different time lags between lasing and debonding

Lasers in Medical Science

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Effectiveness of calcium hydroxide-based intracanal medicaments against Enterococcus faecalis

International Endodontic Journal

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